Ziol-Guest KM, Hernandez DC. First- and second-trimester WIC participation is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and early introduction of cow’s milk during infancy. J Am Diet Assoc. May 2010;110(5):702-709.
This study assessed the association between the timing of prenatal participation in the WIC Program and various infant-feeding practices, including breastfeeding initiation, breastfeeding for at least 4 months, exclusive breastfeeding, formula feeding, and early introduction of cow’s milk and solid food. The study results revealed that entry into the WIC Program during the first or second trimester of pregnancy was associated with reduced likelihood of initiation of breastfeeding and early introduction of cow’s milk. Entry during the first trimester was associated with reduced duration of breastfeeding. WIC participation at any trimester was positively related to formula feeding.