Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108:553-561.
This position paper looked at women of child-bearing ages and the importance of maintaining good nutritional status, through a lifestyle to optimize maternal health and reduce the risk of (1) birth defects, (2) suboptimal fetal growth and development, and (3) chronic health problems in their children. Most pregnant women need 2,200 to 2,900 kcal a day. However, body mass index before pregnancy, rate of weight gain, maternal age, and appetite must be taken into consideration for each individual.