National WIC Association

Breastfeeding Decisions & Barriers

All content tagged with the term "breastfeeding-decisions".


  • Breastfeeding experiences of mothers from disadvantaged groups: a review

    July 1, 2010 - Bibliography
    This study identified factors that prevented disadvantaged groups from initiating and successfully breastfeeding, particularly teenage mothers and mothers from low-income groups. Researchers found that the disadvantaged mothers might require extra support to overcome problems associated with breastfeeding.


  • Rural­–urban differences in breastfeeding initiation in the United States

    May 1, 2010 - Bibliography
    This research examined a nationally representative sample of births using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort to explore associations between rural–urban residence and maternal race/ethnicity on breastfeeding initiation. Results indicated that associations observed for rural–urban breastfeeding initiation differed, based on maternal race/ethnicity and poverty status. These patterns likely reflected differences in economic resources, work environments, and social support among rural minority postpartum women.


  • First- and second-trimester WIC participation is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding and early introduction of cow’s milk during infancy

    May 1, 2010 - Bibliography
    This study assessed the association between the timing of prenatal participation in the WIC Program and various infant-feeding practices, including breastfeeding initiation, breastfeeding for at least 4 months, exclusive breastfeeding, formula feeding, and early introduction of cow’s milk and solid food. The study results revealed that entry into the WIC Program during the first or second trimester of pregnancy was associated with reduced likelihood of initiation of breastfeeding and early introduction of cow’s milk. Entry during the first trimester was associated with reduced duration of breastfeeding. WIC participation at any trimester was positively related to formula feeding.


  • Factors that influence breastfeeding decisions among Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participants from central Louisiana

    April 1, 2010 - Bibliography
    This study investigated factors that impacted the decision to breastfeed and looked at the effect of formula provided by WIC on breastfeeding initiation and duration among WIC participants in a rural parish in central Louisiana. Participants felt that the incentives provided to encourage breastfeeding did not affect their decisions to breastfeed. The majority (96%) of the participants in this study indicated that WIC provided effective and clear education about the benefits of breastfeeding and that this advice influenced their decision to breastfeed their children.


  • What do pregnant low-income women say about breastfeeding?

    February 1, 2010 - Bibliography
    The purpose of this study was to understand the reasons for low rates of breastfeeding and the maternal selection of infant-feeding methods in African-American mothers. Results indicated that mothers wanted to breastfeed for maternal reasons, for infant-related reasons, and because others advised them to breastfeed. Mothers did not want to breastfeed for lifestyle reasons, pain-related reasons, lactation process issues, and hypothetical medical reasons.


  • The effect of WIC on breastfeeding: a new look at an established relationship

    February 1, 2010 - Bibliography
    The study aimed to use propensity scores and fixed-effects estimation data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics—Child Development Supplement to determine the effect of WIC on breastfeeding initiation and duration. Results indicated that the negative association between WIC and breastfeeding is likely false, arising from the poor sociodemographic profile of participants.


  • Early exclusive breastfeeding and maternal attitudes towards infant feeding in a population of new mothers in San Francisco, California

    February 1, 2010 - Bibliography
    This study investigated the frequency of exclusive breastfeeding in the early postpartum period, maternal attitudes toward breastfeeding, and WIC Program participation status in a population of mothers at two San Francisco hospitals. The results showed that a higher percentage (79.8%) of the sample was exclusively breastfeeding at 1 to 4 days postpartum. There were no significant differences in the rates of formula or mixed feeding, by WIC participant status. Independent risk factors for formula or mixed feeding at 1 to 3 days postpartum included Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity. Being a college graduate was associated with a decreased risk of formula or mixed feeding.


  • Progress in protecting, promoting, and supporting breastfeeding: 1984–2009

    October 1, 2009 - Bibliography
    This article examined the progress in breastfeeding support through workplaces, public education, professional education, health system changes, support services, and research. Although there has been considerable progress in breastfeeding support over the past 25 years, significant gaps remain in protecting, promoting, and supporting breastfeeding.


  • Maternal variables influencing duration of breastfeeding among low-income mothers

    June 1, 2009 - Bibliography
    This study investigated the relationship between mothers who breastfed exclusively and those who breastfed partially, as well as the duration of breastfeeding. The results showed that the mothers who breastfed exclusively breastfed longer, were older, and had lower body mass indexes than those mothers who partially breastfed.


  • Variables associated with breastfeeding duration

    May 1, 2009 - Bibliography
    The objective of the study was to identify the variables associated with breastfeeding duration. The results showed that human lactation is a complex phenomenon and that many demographic, physical, social, and psychological variables influenced the duration of breastfeeding.