Bodnar LM, Siega-Riz AM. A Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy detects variation in diet and differences by sociodemographic factors. Public Health Nutr. 2002;5(6):801-809.
The authors examined dietary intake of pregnant women using the Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy (DQI-P), a new index developed to reflect current nutritional recommendations for pregnancy and national dietary guidelines. The highest overall DQI-P scores were identified in women who were older than 30, above 350% of the poverty level, nulliparous, and high school graduates. Additionally, higher-income, older, and better-educated women consumed higher amounts of vegetables. But, black, low-income, and nulliparous women consumed greater intakes of folate and iron.