National WIC Association

Immunization

All content tagged with the term "immunization".


  • Postpartum mothers’ attitudes, knowledge, and trust regarding vaccination

    November 1, 2008 - Bibliography
    The objective of this study was to examine attitudes and knowledge about vaccinations in postpartum mothers. The study showed that although the majority of infants received vaccines, their mothers had concerns and would like to have received immunization information earlier. Mothers who are primiparous; have low family incomes, but do not qualify for the WIC Program; or are breastfeeding might need special attention to develop a trusting relationship regarding vaccinations.


  • Assessment of missing immunizations and immunization-related barriers among WIC populations at the local level

    September 1, 2007 - Bibliography
    This study assessed immunization-related barriers among children in the WIC Program, a population at risk of undervaccination. Results indicated poor immunization rates, which improved with assessment and referral. DTaP—which protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis—was the most commonly missing vaccine. Lack of insurance increased risk of undervaccination.


  • A status report from 1996 to 2004: are more effective immunization interventions being used in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program?

    July 1, 2007 - Bibliography
    Since 1998, the CDC has monitored the WIC/immunization linkages assessment and referral (with and without the more aggressive strategy of monthly voucher pickup, client outreach and tracking, and parental incentives) and three other immunization supporting activities (computerized systems to assess immunization status, collocation of WIC and immunization services, and coordination of WIC and immunization services). Through an annual survey of state immunization and WIC programs, the authors conducted a trend analysis for the years 1998 through 2004 to determine changes in the use and frequency of WIC/immunization linkage activities.


  • Effects of maternal and provider characteristics on up-to-date immunization status of children aged 19 to 35 months

    February 1, 2007 - Bibliography
    The researchers examined the effects of maternal and provider characteristics on the up-to-date immunization status of children. Results showed that low maternal educational levels and low socioeconomic status were associated with high 4:3:1:3 series completion rates. Also, completion rates were high in Hispanic and non-Hispanic black families with low income-to-poverty ratios.


  • Factors associated with underimmunization at 3 months of age in four medically underserved areas

    September 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    This study examined coverage rates and factors associated with underimmunization at 3 months of age in four medically underserved areas. Vaccination coverage levels at 3 months of age varied across sites: They were 82.4% in northern Manhattan, 70.5% in Detroit, 82.3% in San Diego, and 75.8% in rural Colorado. Among children who were not up to date, the majority (65.7% to 71.5%, per site) had not received vaccines because of missed opportunities.


  • Racial/ethnic disparities in preschool immunizations: United States, 1996–2001

    June 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    The authors analyzed current racial and ethnic differences in immunization coverage rates among US preschool children. During the 6-year study period, the immunization coverage gap between white and black children widened by an average of 1.1% each year, and the gap between white and Hispanic children widened by an average of 0.5% each year. The gap between white and Asian children narrowed by an average of 0.8% each year.


  • Improving the immunization and health status of children in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program

    February 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of a manual immunization status assessment for preschool-aged children. Paraprofessional immunization specialists conducted a manual immunization status assessment using the WIC client’s personal vaccination record. Immunization status as recorded in the WIC record was compared with a computerized assessment.


  • Underimmunization in Chicago children who dropped out of WIC

    January 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    This retrospective cohort study determined whether children who remained active at WIC immunization-linked sites after their first birthday were more likely to be immunized by ages 19 months and 25 months than those who had dropped out. The study concluded that children who participated in WIC were more likely to be immunized, compared with children who had dropped out of WIC.


  • Maternal characteristics associated with vaccination of young children

    May 1, 2003 - Bibliography
    The authors analyzed maternal characteristics associated with vaccination in US preschool children. Results showed that factors most strongly associated with undervaccination included mothers who were black; had less than a high school education; were divorced, separated, or widowed; had multiple children; were eligible for WIC, but not participating; or had incomes below 50% of the federal poverty level.


  • Improving the health of infants on Medicaid by collocating Special Supplemental Nutrition clinics with managed care provider sites

    March 1, 2002 - Bibliography
    The study objective was to determine whether collocation of WIC clinics at managed care provider sites improved health care for infants enrolled in Medicaid and WIC. The findings revealed that compared with other infants, those who visited collocated WIC sites were either closer to their age-appropriate weight or had higher immunization rates when recertified by WIC staff after their first birthday.