National WIC Association

Prenatal Care

All content tagged with the term "prenatal-care".


  • The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes

    May 1, 2006 - Bibliography
    The aim of this study was to explore whether conditions of mothers’ neighbourhood of residence contributed to adverse birth outcomes, independent of individual-level determinants. Results suggested that measures of neighbourhood economic conditions were associated with both fetal growth and the length of gestation, independent of individual-level factors.


  • Does WIC work? The effects of WIC on pregnancy and birth outcomes

    December 1, 2005 - Bibliography
    This paper evaluated the skepticism that WIC research failed to properly control for selection into the WIC Program, using rich data from the national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The authors showed that relative to Medicaid mothers, all of whom were eligible for WIC, WIC participants were negatively selected on a wide array of observable dimensions, yet WIC participation was associated with improved birth outcomes.


  • First trimester predictors of diet and birth outcomes in low-income pregnant women

    June 1, 2005 - Bibliography
    This study tested a model describing the relationships between various biopsychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive factors on nutritional adequacy and infant birthweight in low-income pregnant women. The findings showed that maternal age, body mass index prior to pregnancy, nutritional knowledge, and infant gestation at birth explained 52% of the variance in infant birthweight. Providing nutritional education throughout pregnancy might lead to improved dietary patterns, which, in turn, might reduce the incidence of low birthweight.


  • Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: an overview

    May 1, 2005 - Bibliography
    This overview of micronutrients during pregnancy and lactation emphasized two relatively neglected issues: (1) the importance of maternal micronutrient status in the periconceptional period, as well as throughout pregnancy and lactation, and (2) the occurrence of simultaneous multiple micronutrient deficiencies when diets are poor. Unfortunately, information is lacking on the optimal formulation of micronutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women.


  • Maternal prepregnant body mass index and weight gain related to low birthweight in South Carolina

    April 1, 2005 - Bibliography
    This study described the proportion of low-birthweight births that might be prevented by programs targeting maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and/or weight gain during pregnancy. The researchers found that 19% of the very low-birthweight births in South Carolina related to either underweight or overweight BMI at conception. In addition, 8% of the very low-birthweight births were attributed to inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. The authors concluded that appropriate maternal BMI at conception, in conjunction with adequate weight gain during pregnancy, might substantially reduce the number of low-birthweight deliveries.


  • Diet during pregnancy, neonatal outcomes, and later health

    January 1, 2005 - Bibliography
    This systematic review showed that for the offspring, consequences of inadequate maternal nutrition  might depend on the timing of nutritional inadequacy during gestation, reflecting critical windows for fetal development. Therefore, improved diet before pregnancy deserves greater attention.


  • Prenatal nutrition and birth outcomes

    November 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    The goals of this study were (1) to examine the influence of prenatal nutrition on birth outcomes, (2) to describe research on the effects of macro- and micronutrients on birth outcomes, and (3) to discuss strategies for monitoring diet and implementing nutrition education during pregnancy.


  • Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation and infants’ growth and health: a multisite surveillance study

    July 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    The researchers examined associations between WIC participation and indicators of underweight, overweight, length, caregiver-perceived health, and household food security among infants ages 12 months or younger, at six urban hospitals and clinics. Results showed that of the eligible families not receiving WIC assistance, 64% reported access problems, and 36% denied a need for WIC. Families who were not receiving WIC because of access problems were more likely to have underweight infants and experience food insecurity.


  • Barriers to prenatal care for homeless pregnant women

    July 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the barriers to prenatal care for homeless pregnant women. Based on the results, 75.61% of the respondents perceived barriers to prenatal care. Site-related factors were the most significant, followed by provider–client relationship, inconvenience, fear, and cost.


  • A comparative analysis of effects of early versus late prenatal WIC participation on birthweight: NYS, 1995

    June 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    The researchers examined the effects of prenatal participation in the New York State WIC Program on birthweight through enhanced control of selection bias and gestational age bias. Adjusted estimates showed a significant positive effect of longer prenatal WIC participation on birth outcomes for all of the groups studied.