National WIC Association

WIC Outcomes

All content tagged with the term "wic-outcomes".


  • Does prenatal WIC participation improve birth outcomes? New evidence from Florida

    February 1, 2009 - Bibliography
    Using data sets from Florida about all births between 1997 and2001, the authors analyzed the effects of prenatal nutrition and education services provided by WIC on birth outcomes. Based on their results, WIC participation had no effect on mean birthweight and gestational age, but substantially reduced the likelihood of adverse birth outcomes, including birthweights below 2,500 grams.


  • Reassessing the WIC effect: evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    March 1, 2008 - Bibliography
    This study used data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. Studying the effects of the WIC Program, results suggested that the WIC effect in improving infant health exists, but on fewer margins and with less impact than has been claimed by policy analysts and advocates.


  • Effect of the Washington Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on pregnancy outcomes

    November 1, 2007 - Bibliography
    The researchers’ goal was to study the effect of the WIC Program on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Based on the findings, WIC was protective for preterm delivery. Furthermore, it was most protective for women with inadequate prenatal care.


  • Effects of WIC and Food Stamp Program participation on child outcomes

    April 1, 2007 - Bibliography
    The researchers examined the relationship between WIC and Food Stamp Program participation on young children’s health and mistreatment outcomes. Their analysis used a unique individual-level longitudinal database that linked administrative datasets on WIC and Food Stamp Program participation, Medicaid enrollment and claims, and child abuse and neglect reports in Illinois. Based on the findings, receiving WIC benefits and Food Stamps, jointly or alone, was associated with less child abuse and neglect; was inversely related to the incidence of health problems among low-income children; and was associated with lower risk of being diagnosed with anemia, failure to thrive, and other nutritional deficiencies. For several outcome measures, stronger associations were found among study participants enrolled in WIC.


  • Psychosocial predictors of being an underweight infant differ by racial group: a prospective study of Louisiana WIC Program participants

    January 1, 2007 - Bibliography
    The researchers identified psychosocial predictors of having low-birthweight infants among mothers enrolled in the Louisiana WIC Program. Among blacks, mothers with an eighth grade education or less had the highest risk of having underweight infants. Among whites, those who initiated prenatal care in the third trimester were most likely to have underweight infants.


  • WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change

    January 1, 2006 - Bibliography
    For more than 30 years, the WIC Program has provided foods that supplement the diet of millions of low-income women, infants, and children. The WIC Program has been very successful, particularly in improving nutrient intakes among participants. In early 2004, the Institute of Medicine formed a committee to review the WIC Program’s current supplemental food packages and determine whether a redesign could help participating families eat a healthier diet. The committee’s food package recommendations were presented in this report and matched current dietary guidance for infants and young children. The recommendations encouraged consumption of fruits and vegetables and emphasized whole grains, lower saturated fat, and inclusion of foods that appealed to diverse populations.


  • Does WIC work? The effects of WIC on pregnancy and birth outcomes

    December 1, 2005 - Bibliography
    This paper evaluated the skepticism that WIC research failed to properly control for selection into the WIC Program, using rich data from the national Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The authors showed that relative to Medicaid mothers, all of whom were eligible for WIC, WIC participants were negatively selected on a wide array of observable dimensions, yet WIC participation was associated with improved birth outcomes.


  • A comparative analysis of effects of early versus late prenatal WIC participation on birthweight: NYS, 1995

    June 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    The researchers examined the effects of prenatal participation in the New York State WIC Program on birthweight through enhanced control of selection bias and gestational age bias. Adjusted estimates showed a significant positive effect of longer prenatal WIC participation on birth outcomes for all of the groups studied.


  • Socioeconomic gradients and low birthweight: empirical and policy considerations

    December 1, 2003 - Bibliography
    The objective of this study was to examine whether socioeconomic status (SES) gradients emerged in health outcomes as early as birth. Results showed that participation in WIC substantially flattened income gradients for short-term participants and virtually eliminated an income gradient among long-term participants. The researcher concluded that WIC’s effects on income gradients warrant additional study, to explore further whether interventions or participants’ characteristics could resolve socioeconomic disparities in such early-life health outcomes as low birthweight.


  • Effects of psychosocial risk factors and prenatal interventions on birthweight: evidence from New Jersey’s HealthStart Program

    May 1, 2003 - Bibliography
    This research was done to verify the linkages between the Medicaid prenatal care programs, in response to expansions of the Medicaid eligibility criteria. According to the fully adjusted model, the interventions designed to reduce behaviors like smoking, drinking, and using hard drugs (but not marijuana) during pregnancy had no favorable effects on birthweight. In contrast, participation in the WIC Program was associated with an increase in mean birthweight of 22 grams. The increase was 48 grams among inadequately nourished women only.