National WIC Association

WIC Process and Program Evaluation

All content tagged with the term "program-evaluation".


  • WIC participation and attenuation of stress-related child health risks of household food insecurity and caregiver depressive symptoms

    May 1, 2012 - Bibliography
    This study examined the relationship among WIC participation, family stressors, and health risks. Researchers found that participating in the WIC Program attenuated, but did not eliminate, child health risks associated with family stressors.


  • Maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes among homeless mothers

    January 1, 2011 - Bibliography
    This study determined whether participation in the WIC Program was associated with improved maternal and infant health outcomes among homeless women in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Results showed that homeless women in the WIC Program—compared with those not in the program—were significantly more likely to have a higher body mass index,  initiate breastfeeding after delivery, have prenatal care visits, have a longer gestational age, and have a higher infant birthweight.


  • Childhood morbidities among income- and categorically eligible WIC Program participants and non-participants

    March 1, 2010 - Bibliography
    This research explored the associations between childhood morbidities among income-eligible and categorically eligible WIC participant and non-WIC participant groups in a diverse, nationally representative sample of children. Results indicated significant differences in the maternal sociodemographic profiles of eligible child WIC participants and non-WIC participants. According to the results, once the matched pairs were compared, there were no significant differences between child WIC participants and non-WIC participants in the following areas: child asthma, respiratory illness, severe gastrointestinal illness, or ear infection diagnosis; or with mothers who rated their health as poor.


  • Reassessing the WIC effect: evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    March 1, 2008 - Bibliography
    This study used data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. Studying the effects of the WIC Program, results suggested that the WIC effect in improving infant health exists, but on fewer margins and with less impact than has been claimed by policy analysts and advocates.


  • Effects of WIC and Food Stamp Program participation on child outcomes

    April 1, 2007 - Bibliography
    The researchers examined the relationship between WIC and Food Stamp Program participation on young children’s health and mistreatment outcomes. Their analysis used a unique individual-level longitudinal database that linked administrative datasets on WIC and Food Stamp Program participation, Medicaid enrollment and claims, and child abuse and neglect reports in Illinois. Based on the findings, receiving WIC benefits and Food Stamps, jointly or alone, was associated with less child abuse and neglect; was inversely related to the incidence of health problems among low-income children; and was associated with lower risk of being diagnosed with anemia, failure to thrive, and other nutritional deficiencies. For several outcome measures, stronger associations were found among study participants enrolled in WIC.


  • WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change

    January 1, 2006 - Bibliography
    For more than 30 years, the WIC Program has provided foods that supplement the diet of millions of low-income women, infants, and children. The WIC Program has been very successful, particularly in improving nutrient intakes among participants. In early 2004, the Institute of Medicine formed a committee to review the WIC Program’s current supplemental food packages and determine whether a redesign could help participating families eat a healthier diet. The committee’s food package recommendations were presented in this report and matched current dietary guidance for infants and young children. The recommendations encouraged consumption of fruits and vegetables and emphasized whole grains, lower saturated fat, and inclusion of foods that appealed to diverse populations.


  • Barriers to the use of WIC services

    May 1, 2004 - Bibliography
    This study identified barriers that deterred parents/caretakers of infants and children enrolled in the WIC Program from taking full advantage of the services provided by the program. Waiting too long was the most frequently cited barrier (48%). Difficulties in bringing the infant/child to recertify and rescheduling appointments were key variables associated with failure to use (i.e., pick up or cash) WIC checks.


  • Why do WIC participants fail to pick up their checks? An urban study in the wake of welfare reform

    March 1, 2003 - Bibliography
    These authors explored whether work or immigration concerns affected women’s participation in the WIC Program. Results showed that non-collection of checks was associated with job conflicts, transportation or illness problems, and check distribution policies.


  • The impact of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children on child health

    January 1, 2003 - Bibliography
    The authors used data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to analyze the effect of the WIC Program and other factors on the health of US preschool children. Findings revealed that the WIC Program had a significant positive impact on the overall health of children. In particular, children in households participating in WIC were significantly more likely to be in excellent health.